Global shifts in public values and attitudes about wildlife in the 21st century are driving innovations towards non-lethal methods, such as fertility control, as an alternative to culling.

Opinions vary in relation to wildlife species, local densities and economic or environmental impacts of different wildlife species, and stakeholder groups’ attitudes to animal welfare and wildlife control. For iconic species such as elephants, primates, and feral horses, fertility control appears by far the most publicly acceptable method of population control.