Several elephant populations in South Africa are being managed with PZP-based immuno-contraceptives. PZP- based and GnRH-based immunocontraceptives are also used to manage wild horse, deer and feral livestock populations on public and private lands, military bases, national parks, and islands worldwide. Pigeons are managed with nicarbazin-based contraceptives in many European cities, in Ecuador, Canada, Mexico and Cost Rica, and on chemical plants, power stations, university campuses, hotels, shopping centers and health care facilities. ContraPest, based on VDC and triptolide, has been tested in New York City’s subway stations, on US farms, and on Indonesian rice farms. EP-1 has been proven to reduce population size of several rodent species in China and in Tanzania. A single implant of levonorgestrel used in koala and in Eastern Grey Kangaroo populations drastically reduced breeding rates for several years after treatment.