African elephant populations in more than 25 game preserves in South Africa, including the Greater Makalali Private Game Reserve, are presently being managed with PZP.3 PZP is also used to manage wild horse populations on public, private and tribal lands, military bases, national parks, barrier islands, and U.S. Territories, such as Puerto Rico.12 Pigeons are managed with nicarbazin-based products worldwide in places like Barcelona, Spain and Singapore, as well as manufacturing facilities, such as oil refineries, chemical plants, and power stations, hotels and casinos, university campuses, shopping centers, health care facilities, and apartment and condominium complexes.20, 21 ContraPest has been field tested in New York City’s subway stations, North Carolina agricultural farms, and Indonesian rice farms; New York City and Chicago have both launched a pilot project to test the product in 2017.22